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Popular Science: Mainstream sterilization methods other than ultraviolet disinfection equipment

In addition to the use of ultraviolet disinfection equipment, there are many mainstream sterilization methods, including heat sterilization, dry heat sterilization, moist heat sterilization, intermittent sterilization, osmotic pressure sterilization and chemical reagent sterilization. Their different characteristics and scope of use, followed by Xiaobian for everyone's science.

1. Dry heat sterilization: The flame burning method or the hot air sterilization method in the oven is called dry heat sterilization.

The metalware or the cleaned glassware is placed in an electric oven and maintained at 150-170 ° C for 1-2 hours to achieve thorough sterilization (including bacterial spores). Burning is a thorough dry heat sterilization method, which is applied to the inoculation ring, sterilization of inoculation needles or materials with pathogenic bacteria, burning of animal carcasses, and the like.

2, damp heat sterilization: pasteurization is damp heat sterilization, this method has two ways, one is the classic low temperature maintenance method: treatment at 61.7 ~ 62.8 ° C for 30 minutes; the second is the more modern high temperature instantaneous method: at 71.6 ° C Or handle at a slightly elevated temperature for 15 minutes. In the above methods, the steam sterilization effect is good, and it can be sterilized by atmospheric pressure steam, or can be sterilized in a high pressure steam pot (generally 1 kg/cm 2 ), and the vapor temperature can reach 121 ° C. Heat-resistant spores can be killed in 30 minutes. However, some substances that are easily destroyed by high pressure, such as certain sugars or organic nitrogen compounds, should be sterilized at a pressure of 0.6 kg/cm 2 (110 ° C) for 15 to 30 minutes.

3, heat sterilization method: the use of high temperature to denature all proteins in the microbial cells, enzyme activity disappears, resulting in cell death. There are often methods for dry heat, moist heat and intermittent heat sterilization.

4, intermittent sterilization: intermittent sterilization for 3 consecutive days, a steam sterilization method is carried out once a day. This method is applicable to substances that cannot withstand temperatures above 100 °C and some sugars and protein substances. It is usually sterilized by steam for 1 hour under normal atmospheric pressure. The sterilization temperature does not exceed 100 ° C, and does not cause damage to substances such as sugars, but the spores germinated during the intermittent culture can be killed to achieve the purpose of thorough sterilization.

5, osmotic pressure sterilization: osmotic pressure sterilization using high osmotic pressure solution for sterilization. In a high concentration of salt or sugar solution, the cells undergo plasmolysis due to dehydration, and normal metabolism cannot be performed, resulting in the death of microorganisms.

6, chemical reagent sterilization: chemical sterilization commonly used reagents are surface disinfectants, antimetabolites (sulfonamides, etc.), antibiotics, biopharmaceutical antibiotics are a class of secondary metabolism in the process of microbial or other biological life activities Products or artificial derivatives that inhibit or infect the life of their organisms (including pathogens, viruses, cancer cells, etc.) at very low concentrations and can therefore be used as excellent chemotherapeutic agents.